|Personalities courtesy of Apple
Kansas City Monarchs
'A very special person. Those (other) guys, none of
them could have done it. Couldn't handle it. He just turned the
other cheek. They'd knock him down ... I saw a pitcher knock him
down four times. Couldn't care less. I mean, that's the way it
went.' -- Rex Barney
"The right of every American to first-class citizenship
is the most important issue of our time." -- Jackie Robinson
Jackie Robinson Foundation
Baseball's Sublime Hero
The 1997 baseball season marked the fiftieth anniversary of the
end of segregation in major league baseball. It was 1947 when
Jackie Robinson made his historic debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
By David Conrads
||Jackie Robinson signs a contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers
on April 11, 1947 and becomes the first black player to play
in a Major LeagueBaseball game on April 15.
No playoff series was necessary in 1947 as the Dodgers won the
National League pennant by five games over the Cardinals. That
was not the only big story in 1947. Jackie Robinson became the
first black ever to play professional baseball. In 1945, Robinson
had signed a professional contract with Dodger President and
General Manager Branch Rickey.
© 1999 Los Angeles Dodgers Inc.
Rookie of the Year Award in 1947
Played in six World Series
National League Most Valuable Player award in 1949
The number he wore during his 10 years with the Brooklyn Dodgers--42--was
permanently retired from use by all teams.
Jackie Robinson: Before Organized Baseball
Pasadena, California, 121 Pepper Street, was the urban environment.
and her five children constituted the familial environment. These
made up the
environments that helped spawn Jack Roosevelt Robinson, the youngest
of five children,
four boys and a girl, whom Mollie Robinson saved from object poverty
in Cairo, Georgia
after her husband Jerry disappeared.
Copyright 1997 Black Collegiate Services Inc.
A tribute to Jackie Robinson from CBS SportsLine USA a leading
Internet-based media company that provides sports related news,
programming, and merchandise to sports enthusiasts worldwide.
Copyright © 1998 SportsLine USA
New York, NY 1/6/99:
Wheaties Celebrates 75 Years Consumers to vote for all-time favorite
Wheaties champions, whose boxes will be re-released
Minneapolis, MN 2/11/97:
Wheaties Pays Tribute To Hall Of Famer Jackie Robinson Brooklyn
Dodgers great honored on commemorative Wheaties boxes 50 years after
becoming first black major leaguer
©Copyright 1998 General Mills, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Library of Congress, American Memory Collections:
By Popular Demand: Jackie Robinson and Other Baseball Highlights,
Breaking the Color Line: 1940 - 1946
Robinson as a Dodger: 1947-1956
Robinson's Later Career: 1957-1972
Beyond the Playing Field Jackie Robinson, Civil Rights Advocate
To the average man in the average American community,
Jackie Robinson was just what the sports pages said he
was, no more, no less. He was the first Negro to play
baseball in the major leagues. Everybody knew that. . . . In
remembering him, I tend to de-emphasize him as a ball
player and emphasize him as an informal civil rights
leader. That's the part that drops out, that people forget.
NAACP had recognized Robinson with the 41st Spingarn Medalist,
December 8, 1956
Jackie Robinson Academy
2750 Pine Ave. Long Beach, CA 90806
The Jackie Robinson Academy offers outstanding academic programs
that provide constant challenge for
growth and support for learning. Teachers direct each child's curiosity
and love of discovery to help him or
her develop the inner motivation that leads to high academic achievement.
The Jackie Robinson Society
The Jackie Robinson Society is an organization devoted to preserving
the memory and
spreading the legacy of Jackie Robinson, the first African American
to play major league
baseball in the 20th Century. The JRS is an official student organization
of the University of
Texas at Austin.
Text of President Clinton's Jackie Robinson Speech
President Bill Clinton gave the following speech at Shea Stadium
in New York on April
15, 1997. The Dodgers-Mets game was stopped after the fifth inning
for a 50th
Anniversary ceremony featuring speeches by Clinton and Rachel Robinson.
Athlete who broke major league baseball's color barrier. Born Jack
Roosevelt Robinson on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Ga. Pasadena Junior
College; University of California at Los Angeles, where he lettered
in baseball, basketball, track, and football. Worked as an assistant
athletic director to the National Youth Administration; played professional
football for the Los Angeles Bulldogs (1941); entered Officers'
Candidate School at Fort Riley, Kan. (1941), and served in the U.S.
Army as a first lieutenant during World War II. Coached basketball
at Sam Houston College in Austin, Texas (1944-1945); signed with
the Kansas City Monarchs of the National Negro Baseball League (1945);
met Brooklyn Dodgers President Branch Rickey (1945), and signed
with the Dodgers farm team in the International League, the Montreal
Royals, for a signing bonus of $3,500 and a $600-a-month salary;
hit three singles, smashed a three-run homer, stole two bases and
scored four runs in the Royals opening day 14-1 victory over the
Jersey City Giants (1946), and led his team to the 1946 International
League pennant, batting .349 driving in 66 runs, stealing 40 bases,
scoring 113 runs, and fielding .985 at second base. Opened the season,
playing the first base with the Brooklyn Dodgers, against the Boston
Braves at Ebbets Field (1947), becoming the first African-American
baseball player with the majors in modern times; selected by the
Baseball Writers Association as National League Rookie of the Year
(1947), after batting .297, stealing 29 bases, scoring 125 runs,
and helping the Dodgers get to the World Series; won the National
League's MVP award (1949), with a .342 average, 37 stolen bases,
122 runs, and 124 RBIs ; led the Dodgers to six pennants; became
the first African -American to be introduced into the Baseball Hall
of Fame (1962). Died on October 24, 1972, in Stamford, Conn.