Pasadena City College, Home of the PCC Lancers

History of the Library

The Next Six Years

Materials. A highlight of the steady growth of the Library was the acquisition of the seventy-five thousandth volume. This is a milestone that had been achieved by no more than two or three other junior colleges in the nation. It exemplified the fine support that had been given the Library in recent years.

Usage of the Library continued a steady rise. This was the first year in which the circulation count averaged over a thousand for each regular school day of the academic year. Average daily circulation was up 16 percent from the previous year. During the regular school year, circulation in the evening hours (5:00 p.m. to 9:45 p.m.) accounted for over 16 percent of the total circulation.

Finances. For the fourth consecutive year, an increase of fifty cents (from $4.00 to $4.50) per student A.D.A in the budget for books, periodicals, binding and supplies, made it possible to keep abreast of price increases and inflation. Even so, the level of expenditures for the Library was only about half of the minimum recommended in national standards for junior college libraries. Pasadena City College fell in rank from thirty-ninth to forty-fourth among fifty California junior colleges.

Library Board. Following the practice of many years, the Library Board approved the allocation of the book budget to each of the departments and served in a liaison capacity, effectively soliciting the participation of teachers in the book selection process. Seventy percent of the faculty submitted one or more order cards during the year. (The Board was made up of a representative from each of the academic departments, plus representatives from Administration and Guidance. The College Librarian served as Chairman.)

Personnel. Beginning with the Fall Semester, Sylvia Green was employed primarily to teach the Library Clerk courses.

phot of Sylvia Green in 1966.

Newsclipping: For a capsule glance at what is happening arround the world, Lancers look to the eye-catching library bulletin boards. Emplying lettering and display techniques, libray arts students exhibit books concerned with world politics, education, music, art and sports. This activity is right in line with the Library Science Department's philosophy that good libriarians ust keep abreast of the times. The library boasts an extensive collection of periodicals and research materials.

She also worked as a reference librarian and performed other professional duties. Mrs. Grace Yuki was employed as a Library Clerk in the Cataloging Department.

Housing. Significant progress was made in relighting the most critical areas of substandard lighting. Poor ventilation throughout the whole building, especially during hot days in the summer and early fall, made for an unpleasant environment for students and staff alike.

Every library, no matter how large, eventually fills up, and Pasadena City College was no exception. Having already exceeded the number of volumes for which the building was originally planned (i.e., 70,000), continued growth of the book collection accentuated the need for expansion of the bookstacks. The logical area into which to expand was Harbeson Hall, as anticipated in the original building plans. Harbeson Hall, however, was a large lecture hall used by many classes and organizations, and there was no substitute for it elsewhere on the campus.

Nursing Resource Center. Although the Kellogg grant for operation of the Nursing Resource Center had ended, the Center was kept alive by contributions of $100 each from nine community colleges. In addition to Pasadena City College, they were Bakersfield College, Compton College, El Camino College, Long Beach City College, Mt. San Antonio College, Orange Coast College, Riverside College and Ventura College. Mrs. Dorothy Bodo, Library Clerk, did the booking of films and other materials that were delivered and picked up daily by United Parcel Service.

Instruction. With the introduction of two new library courses, the full curriculum was offered for the first time. The entire staff assisted with the supervision and training of students during practice periods in the Library.

Mr. Grainger demonstrating how to repair books

Twenty-nine students were enrolled in the program; three students graduated in June. In order to fit this new instructional program into the instructional framework of the College, a new and fiscally separate Department of Library Service was established with Mr. Grainger as Department Chairman.

Library Council. This student organization had been in existence for several years. It was now composed primarily of students enrolled in Library classes and others who worked in the Library as student assistants. It was quite active this year and participated in the annual campuswide O.M.D. carnival. The Council held its annual awards dinner in the Magnolia Room at Gwinn's Restaurant in East Pasadena.

Newsclipping and photo. Photo, Library Council row one, Patricia Meyer, vbice-president, Susan Brown, Cynthia Moyer, Theodora Johnson, secretary, Michelle Lahey, Becky Barber. Row two: Helen Pendleton, advisor, Carolyn Jones, Ed Kornstein, treasurer, Micheal Warner, Mathew Crawford, president, Ardelia Crawford, Marlene Glenn. Text: Library Council Promotes Fellowship and service, The Library Council assists the librarians in the maintenance of the P.C.C. Library.The Counmcil was founded in 1948 and has served to promote fellowship and service among students with an interest in librarianship. The Council has held various social activites throughout the year, visited various libraries and held an awards dinner.

Three Library Career Awards ($15.00) were given to Rebecca Barber, Carolyn Jones and Curtine Olsen. Honors for Leadership and Service ($10.00) were awarded to Rebecca Barber, Aja Tulleners and Michael Warner. Ardelia Crawford, Carolyn Jones, Christine Macri, Curtine Olsen and Marilyn Smith received Honors for Superior Service ($5.00).

Money for the awards was raised through student endeavors such as the screening of "Mutiny on the Bounty". The Council also sponsored a paperback exchange. They used the slogan" A Book Is to Share", and advertised this activity with posters, bookmarks and newspaper publicity. During National Library Week, several Council members served as hostesses for a faculty tea.




As noted in the Annual Report, this year "seems to have been one in which there was an unusually large amount of unproductive activity." This was partly due to uncertainty over possible building changes and partly because of a particularly knotty personnel matter. Nevertheless, the year was not devoid of accomplishments, as noted below.

Materials. The staff added 5,378 volumes, nearly a thousand books more than the previous year, bringing the total volumes to a record 78,539. A new collection of over 200 musical scores was added to the collection. Intensive weeding was done in the Reference Collection, primarily in nursing and to a lesser extent in the social sciences.

Usage. Circulation figures dropped a little because the lower book stacks were closed for several weeks during an inspection for termites in the lobby floor and adjoining walls. In order to do the inspection it was necessary to remove some of the floor covering and plaster, while at the same time protecting the books from all the dust that was generated by the process. Nevertheless, over a thousand items were circulated on an average day. Circulation exceeded 1,500 on several days and on one day was 1,626.

Missing Books. For a number of years the library staff had been taking an annual inventory of the entire book collection- a very large and labor-intensive task. As a laborsaving measure, beginning with 1965-66, only half of the collection was inventoried each year. In the hope that the number of books checked out but not returned would decrease, the Records Office began withholding final grades from students who had overdue books. Even so, 194 overdue books were not returned, perhaps held by students who didn't care about grades and transcripts or possibly kept by non-student patrons.

Budget. Budgetary limitations resulted in a reduction in the allotment for books, periodicals, binding, and supplies from $4.50 to $4.00 per A.D.A. The rising cost of publications and a 50 percent increase in the number of publications available made this reduction especially hurtful.

Personnel. In keeping with the College's policy of one librarian for every 1,000 students, Darwin Aronoff was added to the staff.

Darwin Aronoff in 1966

This increase, however, accentuated an imbalance between clerical staff and professional staff. Unfortunately, funds were not available for additional clerical personnel. The administration, therefore, agreed to decrease the number of librarians by one in the coming year, thus releasing funds to augment the clerical staff.

Under the Economic Opportunity Act, seven students were employed to supplement the regular student staff. Some of them gave excellent service; others did not. This was the first instance since the days of the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s that federal funds were available for the employment of staff.

Library Building. The inspection of the termite-infested lobby floor, previously noted, revealed that the infestation was not too serious. It was appropriately treated. Several improvements were made in the lighting of the reading rooms and some of the offices. Crowding in the stack areas was becoming increasingly acute.

Instruction. This was the second year in which all four courses in the Library Clerk Curriculum were offered. Eight students completed the program in June.




Materials & Their Use. New accessions for the year reached an all-time high of 6,515, an increase of 1,137 over the previous year. The Library Board had worked diligently to involve the faculty in the selection of materials, and was able to obtain 73 percent participation. Although staff, often with the aid of faculty recommendations, had diligently identified and withdrawn nearly two thousand volumes, the collection climbed to a record 83,085 volumes.

The staff completed the second half of the inventory that was begun the year before, and found that 427 books had been stolen since the previous year's inventory. When combined with 287 books that were still overdue at year's end, the loss by theft continued to be significant, representing a monetary loss estimated at over five thousand dollars.

Over a five-year period, circulation figures for the Reference Desk showed an 86 percent increase. At the Circulation Desk, daytime figures were up 24.4 percent, and Extended-Day were up 65 percent. Every fifty-five seconds, something was being checked out somewhere in the Library. Were each of the 947 books checked out on an average day piled on top of each other, estimating the thickness of an average book to be one inch, the stack of books would have reached as high as an eight-story building.

Improvement in the quantity and quality of service at the Reference Desk continued a trend that had been noted for several years. It was often necessary during busy periods to assign two, and sometimes three, librarians to assist students in their search for information in the Reference Room.

Finances. An increase of twenty-five cents per A.D.A. (to $4.25), for the purchase of materials was a significant step toward restoring the budget to its 1964-65 level of $4.50 per A.D.A. Even so, teachers had submitted $6,000 in book requests for which no regular funds were available. What a relief it was, therefore, at year's end, to receive a federal grant of $29,675 to be expended during the coming year under Title II of the Higher Education Act (College Library Resources Program). The grant would enable the Library not only to order the backlog of books requested by the faculty members, but also to strengthen the Library's historical and reference resources. In addition to books, the funds could be used for the purchase of microfilm copies of magazine backfiles, as well as related supplies and equipment.

With the cooperation of the College's Purchasing Department, about 40 percent of the year's book purchases were made directly through a Los Angeles book dealer. This procedure greatly expedited the procurement of books and also reduced the workload in the Acquisitions Department, the Purchasing Department, and the Warehouse.

Personnel. By eliminating one professional librarian position and replacing it with two clerical positions, it was possible, first of all, to take librarians off the Circulation Desk. It was a step that was long overdue, inasmuch as librarians had been assigned there for many, many years. The work there was primarily clerical rather than professional. Secondly, Technical Services staff were able to eliminate the backlog of uncataloged books that had accumulated over several months, with the expectation that cataloging would now proceed on a current basis. Release from clerical work also enabled the librarians to give improved reference service to students and faculty, and to index such valuable local material as West Magazine.

Without librarians as supervisors at the Circulation Desk, the position of Library Assistant was created as a supervisory clerical position in the Circulation Department. Mrs. Ruth Post was promoted from Library Clerk to fill the new position. Subsequently, Mrs. Mae Lee, Library Clerk, was hired as her assistant.

Ruth Post, Library Assistant

Mrs. Dorothy Bodo, who had been doing film bookings and performing other audio-visual functions, was released part-time to a newly opened Instructional Resources Center. Because she had also served as Acquisitions Clerk, her release brought about some disruption of acquisitions activities until other personnel could be trained. It was also necessary to leave some clerical tasks undone in other areas of the Library or to assign clerical tasks to professional librarians until such time as Mrs. Bodo could be replaced.

The regular student staff was supplemented by fourteen students who were employed under the federal government's College Work Study Program. The work of these students was generally of uneven quality; yet, it was appreciated because of the shortage of funds for additional personnel from the regular College budget. Students under the College Work Study Program added an average forty-four hours per week to the staff. Unfortunately, the hours were not evenly distributed throughout the year, with only three hours per day in the Fall Semester and fourteen hours in the Spring.

Library Building. Carpeting was installed in the lobby during the summer of 1966. It proved to be very effective not only in reducing noise but also in setting the tone for quiet study

as students entered the Library.

In order to be more efficient, the number of public service points was reduced from four to two. Functions at the Reserve and Registration Desks were moved to the Circulation Desk. The Reserve Book Room then became an office area for the Circulation Staff.

Crowding in the bookstacks and the periodical storage area became increasingly more pronounced as the year progressed. Another critical need was the inadequacy of heating and cooling throughout most of the building.

Instruction. A new course, Library Field Practice, was added to the Library Clerk Curriculum. It was enthusiastically received by students in the program and by librarians for whom the students worked. Practice work was performed not only in Pasadena City College Library but also in the high schools and junior high schools of the Pasadena City Schools. Nine students completed the program in June. At this time, the library profession was experiencing a labor shortage that gave increased importance to vocational programs such as this.

photo with caption, Wit and wisdom highlights teaching staff.




Materials & Their Use. Compared to a high reached two years previously, circulation figures dropped about 7 percent, a trend which was expected to continue as more books were used within the library without being counted. The registration of borrowers reached an all-time high (12,370). The addition of 6,336 books and over 3,000 pamphlets set new records for acquisitions as did the withdrawal of 3,465 worn out, obsolete and otherwise unsuitable volumes. By maintaining a fairly high rate of withdrawals, the book collection was kept from growing too rapidly. At year's end, the book collection stood at 85,853 volumes. The annual inventory revealed, once again, that the loss of books through theft and delinquency continued to be high.

Finances. The budget for books, periodicals, binding, microfilm, and supplies was restored to the 1964-65 level of $4.50 per A.D.A. for a total of $43,587. Coupled with a federal grant of $29,675 under the Higher Education Act, Title II, the Library was able to order a backlog of Faculty requests, and to build up the magazine backfiles on microfilm, as well as to strengthen the reference resources, particularly several quite expensive and much needed reference sets.

Under the federal Vocational Education Act, the Library Technology Program was bolstered with a grant of $2,603. The funds were used to strengthen the laboratory resources for this instruction by purchasing several items of equipment, a small collection of reference books, and some instructional supplies.

Certificated Personnel. In the late summer of 1967, Martha Boaz, Dean of the Library School at the University of Southern California, offered Mr. Grainger a federal grant under the Higher Education Act. The grant would make it possible for him to take a year off from his duties in order to pursue doctoral studies at U.S.C. However, the College's full quota of sabbatical leaves for the year had already been awarded, and there were no funds available for hiring a substitute. The other librarians, nevertheless, graciously agreed to absorb the extra load, and Mr. Grainger was granted the leave. Effective September 1, William Weitzel, Reference Librarian, was appointed Acting Department Chairman. (Mr. Weitzel had been on the staff a year longer than Mr. Grainger had.) In the letter of transmittal for his annual report, Weitzel described the year as" a difficult, challenging and rewarding experience," and praised the Library Staff and the College Administration for their wonderful support.

William Weitzel, Librarian

Sylvia Green had been granted a maternity leave for the Fall Semester, and Robert Carter was hired as a replacement. Because of his ability as both teacher and librarian, he was retained on the staff after Mrs. Green's return. This helped to offset the shortage in professional staff created by Mr. Grainger's leave of absence. Mabel Kennedy, who had been in charge of all circulation, registration and reserve desk activities, retired on July 1, 1967, and was replaced by Mr. Robert J. Ball. Mr. Ball had been a teacher of botany in the Life Sciences Department for twenty-nine years before joining the library staff.

Robert Ball giving directions at the Reference Desk

His scientific background was a welcome addition to the Reference Staff. Four eleven-month librarians were placed on twelve-month contracts, thus providing automatic coverage for summer sessions.

photo of Robert Ball in 1955

Classified Personnel. Dorothy Bodo and the audiovisual tasks that she performed were transferred to the Instructional Resources Center. Two people were added to the clerical staff: Mrs. Sue M. Cooper (Reference) and Mrs. Sherry A. Kidda (Technical Services). In their respective areas, each of these assumed clerical tasks which made it possible for librarians to spend less time on clerical tasks and to devote their time and talents to duties typically performed by librarians.

As a result of a campus wide study of classified positions by Griffenhagen-Kroeger, Inc., five of the eight classified staff positions were reclassified upward. Job titles and/or remuneration were brought more into line with actual responsibilities and duties performed.

Services. The impact of improving the librarian/clerk ratio continued to be felt this year. For example, in addition to their normal reference duties, librarians were able to provide quite a few extras. Mrs. Brown, for example, gave orientation lectures to twenty-five different classes, prepared a Faculty Library Handbook, revised the Student Library Handbook, and conducted guided tours. Miss Seward finished the job of cataloging almost 300 musical scores, and briefed the Music Department faculty concerning a new system for cataloging them.

Coping with the flood of new books to be purchased with the Federal grant previously mentioned, Mrs. Pendleton supervised a much larger than usual book selection activity. In order to make room for new material, Mr. Ball worked with faculty members in their fields of expertise to weed out 3,500 obsolete or otherwise unsuitable volumes. He also initiated the practice of taking new books to the faculty dining room once a week for staff perusal, and made many contacts that might not otherwise have occurred. Miss Seward planned and supervised the division of the card catalog into a subject file and an author/title file, an arrangement that was more patron-friendly and easier to use. This improvement in the card catalog proved to be the biggest single undertaking of the year. Two of the librarians lectured on ABC's "Scope" television programs.

Housing & Equipment. As noted previously, the continued growth of the book collection beyond the size for which the building was planned eventually resulted in a book storage area that was jammed to overflowing. A visiting team from the Board of Trustees and the

Administration was finally convinced that something had to be done not only about the crowded bookstacks, but also about the poor ventilation and substandard illumination throughout most of the library building.

Jam-packed shelves in the bookstacks

Subsequently, sufficient shelving was put into place in the West Reading Room for housing about 12,000 volumes there. In anticipation of the move of these volumes from a protected bookstack area into an open and, thus, unprotected area, an electronic security and traffic control system was purchased from the Sentronic Division of General Nucleonics, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio, for installation during the summer of 1968. Magnetic sensors were concealed first in the books to be moved immediately, and later into the rest of the book collection.

Even in a controlled stack situation, the Library had been losing about 600 books annually. Without controls, it was anticipated that losses would at least double, i.e., 1,200 per year. After installation of the security system, losses dropped to about 200 per year, an estimated saving of nearly 1,000 volumes annually. The average cost of books in the seventies was $11.04, so it may be assumed that the security system was preventing losses in the neighborhood of $11,000 annually. Six years after installation, the cost of the system was reviewed. It was found to be about $3,100 per year over a twenty-year period. The annual cost included the purchase and installation of sentrons into each new book. Were human guards to have been employed in place of the Sentronic equipment, the cost would have been more nearly $10,000 to $15,000 per year, and the guards would probably have been less effective in catching items that patrons had neglected to check out.

In order to get relief from stifling heat in the basement, an exhaust fan was installed over a steam tunnel, and exposed steam pipes were insulated. Funding for this work, fortunately, was from a special reserve account of the general fund, and thus did not affect the Library budget.

Proposal for State Funds. In the fall of 1967, in order to make a bid for State construction funds, Pasadena City College submitted a ten-year campus development plan to the State Department of Education. Among other things, the plan indicated the need for expanded library facilities. Somewhat to the surprise of College officials, State officials indicated that it might be possible to develop preliminary plans for a concrete proposal for a new library if they were made no later than February 1, 1968.

Although on sabbatical leave, Mr. Grainger was asked to submit a proposal that would form the basis for an application to the State. Fortunately, he was able to discontinue work on another paper at U.S.C. and give full attention to this proposal even though there was not enough time to prepare specific recommendations on room sizes and similar details. With assistance from the library staff, he was able to put together a proposal in just a few days. In general terms, it described the facilities and related services that would enable the Library to fulfill its mission.

By way of historical perspective, Mr. Grainger noted in his proposal that twenty years earlier the new library building at Pasadena City College was one of the first of its kind-a showplace and pacesetter for others. In the intervening years, however, many things had occurred which altered this situation. The natural growth in student population and in the various elements which make up a library had caused aisles to be narrowed, chairs and tables to be replaced by bookstacks, books and magazines to be stacked out of reach, and offices and workrooms to be overcrowded with materials and staff. Although congestion in the reading rooms had been somewhat alleviated by making tables available in an adjacent cafeteria, the contents of the Library threatened to spill out into the street.

In addition to these normal factors of growth, other things had accentuated the problem. The Library, for example, had provided space for training library assistants, and was also being called upon to house a wide range of nonbook materials and related services. It had also experienced a significant change in the environmental conditions that attended its birth. For instance, recent advances in lighting standards, coupled with the extension of library services into the evening hours, had placed the Library's facilities into a substandard condition. Similarly, poor ventilation, excessive heat, and oppressive smog, along with year-round operation of the building, had conspired together with excessive crowding to make the building virtually unfit for either humans or books. Noise levels, too, had reached intolerable heights-not only from the heavy traffic on Colorado Boulevard (Historic Route 66) and the blaring sounds of electric guitars in the nearby Student Center, but also from within the Library itself. The in-the-library commotion from an ever-expanding stream of patrons, combined with the sounds of electric typewriters, copying machines and other implements, generated noise of alarming proportions.

In view of all of this, it was readily evident to the library staff and hopefully to State officials, that space limitations and numerous other factors had brought about an imperative need for expanded library facilities. With no room to grow, a library that had once been a pacesetter in modern academic library design had become, in many ways, an obsolete structure. It was not able to provide the full range of services and facilities that students and faculty had come to expect.

The Library Staff and the College Administration deemed it a major objective to create within the library environment a climate that would be especially conducive to learning, the prevailing philosophy being that books exist for readers, not readers for books. In the proposed facility, openness and easy access to materials would characterize this philosophy. Readers and books, therefore, would be freely intermingled rather than separated as they were in the twenty-year-old building. In keeping with standards that had been adopted by California's Coordinating Council for Higher Education, seating capacity was recommended to be 15 percent of the anticipated full-time enrollment. With an enrollment for 1970-71 of 7,479, that formula would require seating for 1,122 readers, slightly more than double the seating then available.

The Library Staff was hopeful that related services that were currently widely separated would be brought together into a more functional relationship. Because funds were not available for a completely new building, the staff hoped that an addition attached to an old building would result in an essentially new facility that (1) would give the impression, inside and out, of a well-planned unified whole, (2) would be aesthetically satisfying, (3) would be flexible enough to permit change in accordance with future needs, especially in keeping with the information explosion and dramatic new technological developments on the horizon, and, finally (4) would make provision for expansion on that future date when the new revised plant would inevitably be filled to capacity.

The proposal, as submitted to the State, envisioned a four- or five-story addition on the south side of the existing structure. In addition to all of the traditional library functions, it would incorporate a full range of audiovisual and media services, that is, a functional Instructional Resources Center. It would include a teaching laboratory for the training of library clerks and technicians and would have two classrooms for library orientation as well as for the Library Technology Program. With respect to light, ventilation, and acoustics, it was proposed that the old library structure would be brought up to the level of the new addition. The proposal even suggested that a long-sought Faculty Center could be built on the top floor and that underground parking could be provided beneath the new structure.

In order to meet the February 1 deadline, a Project Planning Guide (PPG) was submitted to the State on January 30, 1968. The PPG was approved on August 20, 1968. It was not until a year later on August 29, 1969, that the College included the project in its "Continuing Ten-Year Plan for Capital Construction for the Period Beginning September 1, 1969" and proposed 1973-74 as the year for the funding of working drawings. In the Ten-Year Plan, the estimated cost of the new addition was $4,000,000. Renovation and modernization of the old structure was estimated to cost $419,682. In the words of those who drew up the plan, the remodeling, "when effected and consolidated with the Library Addition, will provide a reasonably modern functional library capable of meeting the College needs for the foreseeable future".

Edward Rodgers, a field representative from the State Department of Education, indicated that the proposed project would easily qualify for State funds under the California Junior College Construction Act of 1967. He estimated that such funds would cover about 56 percent of the cost. The balance was to be covered by local and federal funds. As far as the local share was concerned, the Board of Trustees had been following a pay-as-you-go policy, and had accumulated substantial reserves for construction projects. The federal share was to be covered by the Higher Education Facilities Act I. Unfortunately, the College proposal had included numerous other construction projects, and the Library Addition had been assigned a rather low Priority 6. Lacking adequate support, the proposal died on the vine, so to speak. Although the remodeling project was included in the College budget for 1969-70, it also died.

Had the proposed project gone forward, the assignable square footage (ASF) for library facilities would have increased from less than 30,000 to 69,410 square feet, including 13,700 ASF for the Instructional Resources Center (IRC). Under the "Space and Utilization Standards" of the Coordinating Council for Higher Education that were in effect at that time, the space for the IRC would be "calculated over and above the allowances provided by the standards pertaining to the 'traditional' functions'." The Library and its traditional functions would, therefore, not have lost any space to the IRC.

Instruction. In keeping with a national trend, the Library Clerk Curriculum was renamed the Library Technology Program. The program, now in its fifth year, continued to attract students. Ten of them completed the program in June 1968.

Initially, a portion of the West Reading Room was screened off for use as a laboratory for students enrolled in the Library Clerk program. In 1973, the lab was moved out of the Library's reading room and into the "A" building. (Incidentally, this building was formerly one of the many bungalows that housed Japanese Americans who were temporarily interned during World War II at Santa Anita Assembly Center prior to being shipped off to interior states.

Grace Yuki, a Library Clerk in the Library's cataloging department, was one of more than 18,000 Japanese, many of them U.S. citizens, who were housed in barracks in the parking lot at Santa Anita Racetrack.)

"A" Building, formerly housing for Japanese internees

Apart from the Technology Program, Library 1 (Basic Library Procedures) was added as a new general education course. Students enthusiastically received it, and enrollment almost doubled in one year. Students often just needed a one-unit course for completing a course load yet many of them were pleasantly surprised at how much they learned about using libraries and how helpful it was for the other courses they were taking. Under Mr. Carter's supervision, a Library Learning Center was established in the West Reading Room for the benefit of students enrolled in the course.




Beginning this year, Dr. Armen Sarafian, College President, with the concurrence of the College Council, decided that his office would no longer require annual reports. Consequently, from this time forward the kind of documentation that had been available from the beginnings of the Library until 1968-69 simply does not exist. The primary source was a single-page summary of the year's activities that the librarian and other heads of departments and offices submitted to the Press Bureau. (Beginning in 1971-72 these summaries were submitted annually to Dr. Stan Gunstream, Vice-President for Instruction, and his successors. Not until 1984 were they expanded to include more than bare statistics.)

Materials & Their Use. Circulation figures compared to prior years became less significant because of the electronic security system that had been installed the previous year. This system made it feasible to change from a closed stack to an open stack. Patrons could then take books from the bookstacks directly into the reading rooms without checking them out. Books used only within the library were therefore no longer included in the circulation figures.

The new security system included turnstiles that would lock if someone were exiting with materials that had not been properly checked out. Any such encounter was treated as forgetfulness on the part of the patron rather than as an attempted theft.

Photo of the lobby. Photo of a turnstyle.

As the year began, only about 14 percent of the collection had been protected by the insertion of magnetic sensors. Many unprotected books could, therefore, be carried through the exits without triggering an alarm. No doubt some were. The turnstiles provided a new measure of library usage by automatically counting each time a person passed through them. Counts in this first year of use totaled 468,761. (It is impossible to know how many separate individuals this represents.)By withdrawing one volume for every two and a half added to the collection, the rate of growth was held in check. The book collection now stood at 86,749 volumes. At this time the Library was open for service about sixty-six hours per week. Saturday morning was now regularly scheduled.

Finances. The local budget was bolstered again this year by $9,369 in federal funds- not only under the Higher Education Act for library materials but also under the Vocational Education Act for materials and equipment for the Library Technology Program. The total expenditure of local funds for books, periodicals, supplies and equipment was $249,267.

Housing. Undaunted by the failure of the 1968 proposal for an addition to the library building, the librarians spent many hours exploring the feasibility of expanding the Library into Harbeson Hall. As noted earlier, the architects had originally planned that the Library's avenue for expansion would, indeed, be into Harbeson Hall. Large lecture facilities were now available elsewhere on campus, so the librarians submitted a proposal for expanding into Harbeson. The proposal was given serious consideration by the Administration, even to the point of having architectural drawings made.

Apart from the expansion proposal, the Cataloging Department, under Grace Seward's direction, was rearranged and expanded for an improved, more efficient operation. The receipt of federal grants for additional materials made it even more necessary that cataloging be done expeditiously without additional staff.




Materials & Their Use. With the aid of subject specialists from amongst the faculty, the library staff regularly made withdrawals from the collection. Even so, at year's end there were 94,300 volumes-35 percent more than the capacity for which the building was originally planned. Not reflected in these figures for cataloged items were uncataloged documents and pamphlets that were being added at the rate of about 2,000 items per year.

In order to check on losses, the staff took a complete inventory of the collection, and found that some patrons were still getting away with unauthorized "loans" that is, thefts. However, some potential losses were thwarted by the security system. The system intercepted three hundred patrons with "hot" books (i.e., those not properly checked out).

Although turnstile counts approached the half-million mark (491,887), circulation figures dropped about 24 percent, largely due to a change in the length of the circulation period (from one week to two weeks), but also to a more lenient policy on the collection of fines for overdue materials. There also seemed to be more and more use of materials within the Library. Such items were not counted in circulation figures. The number of registered borrowers rose slightly from the previous year (to 11,481).

Finances. As in prior years, local funds for the employment of student assistants were augmented indirectly through the assignment of students enrolled under the College Work Study Program. This program was centralized in a separate office and was not charged to the Library's budget. The sum of $4,631 was provided to the Library under the program. Other federal assistance was received under the Higher Education Act ($14,145) and the Vocational Education Act ($4,380). The Library spent $279,253 in local funds, up 12 percent from 1968-69. In order to accommodate an ever-expanding collection, the Library spent $2,500 for additional shelving. At that time, the net gain in acquisitions was requiring twenty-five to thirty new sections of shelving each year

Personnel. The ratio of one librarian to one clerk remained the same as it had for the previous three years. Although" clerks" were, and often still are, referred to as "non-professionals," the eight clerks on the Library staff functioned on a very professional level. Librarians, so-called "professionals," were able to devote much more of their time to professional tasks. Their accomplishments included: (1) devising a system to expedite the cataloging of books which require in-depth analysis, (2) speeding up the processing of book requests which were initiated by teachers, (3) expediting book orders so that the average time for acquisition of materials was cut in half, and (4) compiling indexes for four magazines not indexed elsewhere. The staff of forty-eight student assistants provided 11,041 hours of valuable service, of which 2,858 were federally funded under CWSP, as noted above.

Housing & Equipment. In December 1969 a "Campus Master Plan 1968-1978" was presented to the Trustees. The report was prepared under the direction of G. H. Womble, Jr., Consultant for Junior College Facilities Planning, assisted by Arthur S. Garr, Pasadena City College Facilities Planner. In the report, Mr. Womble stated that the Library Building was "first on the priority list for remodeling and modernizing." He stated, further, "the Library and Harbeson Hall building will soon be remodeled to serve Library functions exclusively, until such time as a new Library Building can be constructed. Even with this remodeling, the Library will still be over-crowded and substantially below minimum CCHE Standards for a college library of 10,000 to 12,000 students. The new library should be completed as soon as feasible and practical." Such words were music to the librarians' ears, but nothing was done at that time to bring them to pass. It should be noted, however, that in July 1968, the architectural firm of Allison, Rible, Robinson and Ziegler, the College's architects, had drawn up a master plan for the campus on which was marked "an area for proposed library building." The marked area was precisely where, twenty-two years later, the dreamed-for new library was finally built.

Needless to say, the staff was very disappointed that the Harbeson Hall proposal was not approved. They were concerned not only because of the large amount of planning time that had gone into the proposal but also because lack of space for physical expansion of the facilities was becoming more critical every day. Mr. Weitzel expressed his concern also that the Library "would become a big book warehouse instead of a library."

As book stacks encroached more and more on reading room seating, it became evident that more efficient seating arrangements were needed. A survey revealed that flat tables with eight to ten chairs would normally accommodate only five to seven students. Unless studying with others, students would often spread out books and papers so as to stake out one's own territory. College maintenance carpenters partitioned some fifteen to twenty of the larger tables into carrels, thus providing semiprivate student stations, which in effect established territory for each student, and made it feasible to use every chair around each partitioned table. Besides that, students tended to socialize less, and reading rooms tended to be less noisy.

College maintenance personnel also built sixteen study carrels, and fitted them with electrical outlets so that tape players and other electrical devices could be used in them. The Library had been acquiring audiocassettes for some time, and federal funds were now being used to purchase even more.

Instruction. The Library Technology Curriculum was reorganized to permit completion of all library courses in one year rather than two. Teachers produced a set of slides and other recruitment materials for the Library Technology Program. Twenty-one students graduated.

In November 1969 the Library held an open house to which they invited personnel from all types of libraries throughout the area served by Pasadena City College. Visitors were able to visit the Library Technician Laboratory and to see what was being done to train library technical assistants. They were also able to visit the Library Learning Center where an auto-tutorial approach was being used to teach the course in Basic Library Procedures. This approach was being used to provide library instruction to hundreds of students who were not involved in the Library Technology Curriculum.

Summary. This six-year period was one in which there were a multitude of changes. For the most part, change meant that significant progress had been made in the Library's overall ability to serve its college community more effectively.

Because of the ever-present crowded conditions, the staff and faculty continually weeded the book collection. Even so, the number of new acquisitions outstripped the withdrawals, and the number of volumes increased from 71,109 (July 1, 1964) to 94,300 (June 30, 1970). The result was a continual encroachment of books into the reading rooms, thus decreasing the number of reader stations. In the same period of time, the number of registered borrowers increased about 5 percent. The number of persons passing through the entrance/exit turnstiles, a new measure of usage of the Library, reached nearly half a million by the end of the decade.

The Library's budget was augmented by the influx of Federal funds not only for books and other library materials but also for the employment of student assistants. Although precise figures are not readily available, in the aggregate, the Higher Education Act, the Vocational Education Act, and the College Work Study Program added something in the neighborhood of $85,000 to $90,000 to the combined budgets of the College Library and the instructional Department of Library Service between 1964 and 1970. The federal funds were a significant addition to the College Library budget that had now reached $279,253.

The continuing efforts of the librarians to improve and expand the physical plant had come to naught. Nevertheless, the extreme crowding and the inadequacy of cooling and heating were reasons enough for the staff to keep on striving for improvement. Their latest proposal, a $4 million four-story addition, proved to be just too costly. The introduction of carrels into the reading rooms did, however, have the effect of maximizing the number of available reader stations.

With respect to personnel during this six-year period, the number of certificated and classified staff had each increased by one. The total number of hours for student staff remained largely unchanged. However, student assistants in the College Work Study Program now made up 26 percent of the student staff, compared to none in 1964. Although the size of the staff did not increase appreciably, significant progress was made in professionalization of assignments so that there was a better delineation of tasks between classified and certificated. In 1964, librarians were spending about one-third of their time on classified and student tasks. By the end of the sixties, all employees were able to work at duties that more nearly matched their qualifications. One significant benefit was that the staff was able to eliminate a sizable backlog of uncataloged books, and then was able to keep cataloging on a current basis.

During this period, the Library Staff continually strived to improve efficiency and to make the Library more patron-friendly. This involved such major tasks as creating a divided card catalog in which subject cards were filed into separate cabinets. Examples of relatively minor tasks were the reduction of the number of public service desks from four to two and the division of large reading tables into individual reader stations. Saturday hours were offered on a regular basis for the first time. These actions and many others made for a more efficient, user-friendly environment for students and faculty.

Finally, the instructional program improved significantly by adding field practice in other libraries to the Library Clerk Curriculum and by scheduling the classes so that all courses could be completed within one year. A new general education course in Basic Library Procedures proved to be very popular. This course and single-class orientations, coupled with library tours instead of large auditorium presentations, became the norm for "breaking the ice" with students.