Pasadena City College, Home of the PCC Lancers

History of the Library

The 1990's

Shatford Library

Groundbreaking for the new building took place in 1991

Photo of crowd at opening ceremony.

Groundbreaking ceremony Dr. Jack Scott, College President at the podium

Construction was substantially completed in July 1993 and the firm of People Movers was engaged to move the Library's collections to the new building. The old Library was open for business as usual through August 30, 1993. The next day the old Library was closed forever, and the move of the book and periodical collections began. Moving books at an average rate of 5,000 books per hour, twenty-seven movers completed the work on September 2.

Photo of construction of front entry to Shatford Library. Photo of construction of front entry to Shatford Library.

Dan Haley was responsible for planning and overseeing the move of materials from the old building to the new. He planned the move in great detail so that all books and other materials found their rightful places in the new building.

Because the room intended for the Treasure Room and the Archives collections was being used as a temporary storeroom, those two collections had to be left behind. While waiting for the room to become available, Bill Grainger drew up a floor plan and a new indexed layout that made it feasible to spread out materials that had been severely cramped in the old quarters. It was several weeks into the new semester before shelves were installed. On February 28, 1994, when the move of the Treasure Room and archival materials had been all but completed, Mr. Grainger personally and proudly, but somewhat sadly, moved the very last book truck load from the old library into its new home in the Treasure Room of Shatford.

Bill Grainger moving the last load of materials from the old library into Shatford Library, 1994

The new library was named after Walter T. Shatford II. He had served as a trustee for Pasadena City College for nearly thirty years. Before that, he had served eight years on the Board of Education for the Pasadena Unified School District. Throughout his years of service he had a heart for the Library.

Walter Shatford

The naming of a library for him was a fitting tribute for one of Pasadena's great public servants. (An oral history interview with him, conducted by Mr. Grainger in 1988, is available in the Shatford Library.)

Portrait of Walter Shatford by his wife, Sara Shatford

The doors of the new library opened at 7:30 a.m. on September 7, 1993, culminating over thirty years of effort on the part of the Library Staff - years in which it seemed that they were forever making plans either for remodeling or for new facilities. Befitting its majesty, Shatford Library opened with a brief fanfare of trumpets-the last time such a sound was to be heard in the Library.

Photo of trupeters blowing a fanfare.

Photo showing trumpeters on the roof of the Shatford Library.

By 10 a.m. on that first day, all 900 seats were taken. Some construction work was still being done and detail work being completed. Portions of the first floor, which housed Media Services and radio station KPPC, were not yet open because equipment was still being moved in.

first of three views showing the new library entrance.

second of three views showing the new library entrance.

third of three views showing the new library entrance.

Shatford Library was built at a cost of $16,575,000. In the most successful fundraising campaign in the history of Pasadena City College, the PCC Foundation raised $1.5 million from private sources to supplement state funding. This amount included $345,000 contributed by the College's faculty and staff. The capital campaign for the new library was a great fundraising success, and it stands as a symbol to the community that local dollars can, indeed, make a significant difference. Funds were used for the design, construction, and furnishing of the building as well as for the purchase of special collections and equipment. Giving credit to the many donors, a "Donor Wall" is located in the Library's entrance hall.

Donor Wall

Designed by Gruen Associates, the three-story structure contains space for 160,000 volumes and seating for 900 readers.

View of the north side of the library at dusk.

Students studying in library.

veiw of second floor with many students studying

It was designed to be compatible with the original main core of the campus, fitting in well with the historical core buildings nearby. It was the centerpiece of a $100 million, 10-year master plan, also designed by Gruen Associates. The second and third floors and a portion of the first floor are utilized for the library.

Most of the first floor (9,000 square feet) became the new home for the Media Services

Center. Besides typical audio-visual spaces, the Center houses a television teaching facility, a television studio and the offices of KPCC FM 89.3, National Public Radio for Southern California. Also included are graphic arts and photo production facilities. In order to maintain controlled access within the Library and to give Media Services its own identity, a separate Media Services entry is provided at ground level.

The Library was dedicated on October 27, 1993. The keynote speaker was internationally respected teacher-scholar-administrator Dr. John D. Maguire, president of the Claremont University Center and the Claremont Graduate School. Sam M. Soghomonian, professor emeritus of political science at Pasadena City College, served as the master of ceremonies. Walter T. Shatford II also addressed an audience of over 500 people in front of the new library named in his honor.

Dedication of Shatford Library, Dr. John D. Maguire at the podium

Three heritage rooms were incorporated into the Library. The community raised $50,000 or more for each room-the African-American Heritage Room, the Latino/Chicano Heritage Room, and the Asian Pacific American Heritage Room. Used for group study and as conference rooms, the rooms feature special collections and displays appropriate to their respective cultures. Donor names are prominently displayed in each room.

Asian Pacific American Heritage Room

Latino-Chicano Heritage Room

African American Heritage Room

The Art Department provided artwork for permanent display in the building. Much of the artwork was the result of the College's annual Artist-in-Residence program. Student work has been periodically on display in both the old library and in Shatford. Over the years, exhibits and displays have frequently been quite creative and often outstanding. Librarian George McCauley, a former art teacher, set a standard in the fifties and sixties for others to follow. Bill Grainger, Helen Pendleton, Delois Flowers and Maxine Franklin, although untrained in art, did commendable work. Mrs. Franklin often assisted the others, and exhibits in the glass cases were usually outstanding when she added her special touch.

Books Make a Difference exhibit by Maxine Franklin and Mary Ann Laun

Two major awards have been bestowed on the Shatford Library. The first was received in March 1994 from the Pasadena Beautiful Foundation when the Library was awarded the Crown City Award for contextual contemporary design. The second award was the 1995 John Cotton Dana Library Public Relations Special Award for an exceptional library public relations effort in promoting the first year of the Shatford Library. This national award was presented at the American Library Association's annual conference in Chicago in June 1995.

Although too late on the scene to participate in planning the new library building, Dr. David Dowell was employed in 1991 as Assistant Dean, Library Services just in time to watch over the construction of the new building-selecting furniture and equipment for it, planning the layout within rooms, and keeping on top of a great many other things that go along with having a new home.

Dr. David Dowell, Library Director 1991-1995 Shatford Library under construction

(During the construction period, the Library Construction Team prepared monthly reports, including photographs of various aspects of the construction. Selected photos are shown below.

Library site-beginning stages (as of 12/1/91)

Data communication, electrical conduits

First steel column being lowered into place

Skylight framing ready to hoist

The Library Project Reports are available in the Library's archive collection. Contractor for the project was Moran Construction Company of Alhambra, California. On behalf of the College, Ernest Church, Director of Facilities Services, was overseer for the project.)

Reflecting on the new library, Dr. Dowell saw the most attractive element of the facility as also one of its biggest drawbacks. In his words, "The architect, Maris Peika of Gruen Associates, made a wonderful use of natural light, light color decor, furnishings and shelving.

View of the second floor atrium.

This ambiance lifts the spirit. It also makes the facility seem even more spacious than it is. This has had a definite positive effect on student and staff morale. "On the down side, he stated that, "the light surfaces are already becoming a challenge to us as we attempt to maintain the appearance of the walls, carpet and furnishings because they show dirt and marks very readily."

first of three photos of students using the library. second of three photos of students using the library.

third of three photos of students using the library.

Personnel After the move into the new Shatford Library, it became quickly evident that additional staff would be needed. The Library's service area had doubled, as had its seating capacity. Traditional measures of library usage (See below.) were up dramatically. Library orientation and bibliographic instruction for class groups as well as for individual students required an ever-increasing amount of time. It was necessary not only to orient them to the new building and the location of the many resources within the building but also to teach them how to use the online catalog and numerous other unfamiliar indexes to the Library's resources. The Library Technology Master Plan, described briefly under" Automation "below, clearly delineated the need for additional staff if the Library were to carry out its mission and attain the goals it had set for itself.

As noted above, Mrs. Kim resigned her position as Assistant Dean, Library Services, in September 1990. Her successor, Dr. David Dowell served from the spring of 1991 until 1995 when he resigned to become Director of Learning Resources at Cuesta College in San Luis Obispo, California. Mary Ann (Sherman) Laun was on leave during 1994-95. While on leave, she completed work for a Master's Degree at California State University, Los Angeles. In the course of her studies, she developed and enhanced skills that were of significant benefit to the patrons of Shatford Library. Especially valuable was improved patron access to information through graphical user interfaces as an alternative to the traditional textual interfaces. In October 1995, she was appointed to the position of Assistant Dean, Library Services. Mrs. Laun had been on the Library staff in various capacities since 1980.

Mary Ann Laun

Dorothy Potter, who had been a history major at P.C.C. years before, was hired as a Certificated Librarian in August 1996. Edgar A. Pacas, who had worked part-time since 1993 was appointed as a full-time Library Technician in November 1996. The student staff ran short-handed in the Spring Semester of 1997 because very few College Work Study students chose to work in the Library. Police cadets who were first used to patrol the Library in October 1997, were pulled from such duty in January 1998, but were later restored. Their presence in the Library has helped to maintain an atmosphere conducive to quiet study.

Materials. At the new Library's opening, based on Library statistics for July 1, 1993, it housed 113,228 books in the general collection, 919 paperbacks, 291 books in the Special Services collection, 3,795 audiocassettes, 463 videocassettes, 9 items of computer software, and 66 art prints. (In order to prepare for the move into Shatford, the staff processed very few new items during the summer of 1993.)

The new library building had significantly more shelf space than the old. Nevertheless, the library staff continued its efforts to weed out obsolete and unsuitable titles, especially in the book and pamphlet collections. Therefore, even though the staff had been adding nearly 4,000 new volumes each year, by the end of the nineties (actually July 1, 2000), the Library's book collection totaled only 128,241 volumes. Other holdings stood at 6,134 audiocassettes, 966 paperbacks, 551 CDs and software, and 1,112 videocassettes.

Library Usage. The fund-raising campaign for the new library seemed to have a salutary effect on the Library even prior to its move, as turnstile counts continued to rise. Reporting to the Board of Trustees after three years in the new building, Mrs. Laun stated that use of the Library had risen over 61 percent and that circulation of library materials had increased 47 percent. As mentioned earlier, so many variables affect circulation that it is very difficult to make meaningful comparisons. The number of items checked out went up and down over the six years since Shatford's opening in 1993. At the end of 1998-99, the number was down about 17 percent below the first year in Shatford.

Although at this writing, the statistics for 1998-99 have yet to be analyzed, one of the factors that almost certainly came into play was the availability of magazine articles in full text on the Library's public access computers, making it often unnecessary to check out the hard copies.

Students using the online public access computers

Prior to full-text offerings, approximately fifty percent of the circulation was periodicals from the closed periodical stacks. The effect of Internet resources is another factor yet to be analyzed. High exit counts may indicate that patrons are using many resources within the Library without ever checking them out. Reference Librarians have felt that the ever-increasing volume of activity at that Reference Desk bears out this assumption.

In a 1995 survey to which 1,285 students responded, nearly half reported that they use the library daily or weekly, another 20 percent, monthly. Compared to the year 1992-93 in the old library, exit counts for 1998-99 more than doubled (from 423,785 individuals to 882,778).

Services. Other survey responses cited significant factors pertaining to services:

  • 56 percent generally found information that they needed; 35 percent partially did so.
  • 80 percent found that information was at a level appropriate to their needs.
  • 29 felt that the library was not open long enough for their needs.
  • 72 percent felt comfortable using computers in the library.
  • 17 percent rated library services as excellent, 59 percent good, 22 percent fair, only 2 percent poor.

In fall 1998, the College's Institutional Planning and Research Office surveyed a random sample of 1,000 students in which students were asked about library hours. Although seventy percent of the 386 respondents indicated that the current library hours met their needs, about a third felt the Library should be open an hour longer on weekdays and should be open on Saturday afternoons and on Sundays. For the Fall Semester 1999, the Library did extend the closing hour from 9 p.m. to 10 p.m., Monday through Thursday. Saturday hours had been offered for some years from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m., and no additional hours were added, but Sunday hours were scheduled for the first time in the history of the Library from 1 to 5 p.m. This extension of hours was funded by a "Partnership for Excellence" grant from the State.

Finances. Expenditures for materials were up and down during the nineties, the increases often being from special grants or other augmentations. Expenditures rose from $103,683 in 1990-91 to $275,653 in 1997-98. Because of the aforementioned special State augmentation, the Library once again had to suspend the acceptance of gifts in order to balance the workload.

Throughout this decade, it became increasingly more difficult to make comparisons with prior years. In earlier years, for example, library materials were primarily defined as being books, periodicals, and perhaps some microfilm and audiovisual materials. With the advent of computer software, videotapes in a variety of forms, and electronic databases (some from the Internet and the World Wide Web), information became available in a wide variety of formats. The National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) began using the term "information resources". For 1997-98, expenditures for information resources reported to the NCES totaled $316,171. On the same report, total library expenditures, including employee fringe benefits, were $1,436,843. Based on statistics submitted to NCES for 1997-98, Pasadena City College ranked fifty-ninth among one hundred six California community colleges.

The Library's regular book budget was relatively static for ten years between 1985 and 1995 whereas the average price of college books rose over 50 percent. Similarly periodicals went up 86 percent. Consequently, the Library was unable to keep pace with the high volume of new publications, and the collections rapidly aged accordingly. In the aforementioned survey, twenty-three percent of the students characterized the information they found in the Library as "too old".

Activities, Accomplishments: 1993-1996. In addition to the items above under "Library Usage", in June 1996, Mrs. Laun reported many other Library accomplishments:

  • Took the lead for faculty, staff, and student instruction on the use of the Internet and its resources.
  • Participated in the development of the College's Technology Master Plan and campus Web page.
  • Delivered electronic, full text periodical service.
  • Made available a Kurzweil Reading Edge system for students with disabilities (part of a Disabled Student Programs and Services project grant).
  • Designed and installed software for a multimedia, graphical interface to Shatford Library services and collections.
  • Received the 1995 John Cotton Dana Special Award for Excellence in Public Relations.
  • Received the Silver Medallion for Shatford Library brochure (1993)
  • Received a continuing Associated Student Body grant for the purchase of textbooks.

Instruction. When the Library Technology Program was re-established for 1991-92, all courses were reviewed and thoroughly revised. Three new courses were added: "Legal Literature Searching", "Medical Literature Searching", and "Media Materials and Services".

Once again, enrollments were too low to sustain the Program, and it was discontinued after two years. Five students completed the Program.

During the Fall Semester 1992, librarians gave bibliographic instruction in the old building to 71 classes (1887 students). In the Shatford Library for the Fall Semester 1993, comparable figures were 87 classes (2499 students). This constituted a thirty-two percent increase in the number of students receiving such instruction.

Automation. In 1990 the Library made significant progress toward achieving its long- range goal to include access to all learning resources wherever located on the College campus. All materials in the Nursing Faculty Collection in the "U" Building, all audio-visual materials in the Nursing Lab, and all art slides (faculty use only) in the Art Department were cataloged and entered into the Library's on-line catalog. Also, an additional CD-ROM was purchased from Wilsonline to give patrons access to the Social Sciences Index.

In 1991 the Library was added to the Instructional Computing Network as a menu option for faculty and students. CD-ROM databases (ERIC for educational resources and CINAHL for nursing and allied health literature) were added to the Instructional Network. The next year two periodical indexes (Academic Index and Wilsonline's Reader's Guide) were added as menu options on the network. In addition, cataloging of the Music Laboratory book collection into the Library's catalog was begun.

When the Library moved into the new building in 1993, twenty-eight personal computers for public access to the online catalog with connections to a central printer were established. In 1996 the Associated Student Body provided funds for five multimedia, Internet-accessible workstations with a laser printer. A reservation system was set up so that students could reserve half-hour slots for accessing the Internet. The ASB funded five more stations in 1999.

Information technologies were developing so fast that in 1997 Mrs. Laun appointed a committee to develop a Library Technology Master Plan. She chaired the committee, and the Master Plan was completed on February 1, 1998. It addressed four fundamental goals: 1) to provide information resources to everyone in the academic community, including off-campus sites, and also seek to facilitate easier access for non-student residents, and especially for students in feeder high schools; 2) to provide students and faculty with such assistance and instruction as they may need to integrate appropriate information resources into their learning and their teaching in a variety of ways, and to enable them to acquire the skills and competencies required for information literacy; 3) as an information delivery center, to provide a strong infrastructure that facilitates delivery of resources beyond traditional hours and settings; and, finally, 4) to marshal the Library's human resources so as to work closely with the discipline-based faculty in achieving greater integration of appropriate technology into the curriculum. The Master Plan outlined the strategies for achieving these goals. It also included a mission statement that commits the library staff to provide quality services for the academic community and for the residents of the Pasadena Area Community College District. This plan, although modeled after the California State University plan, was used by the Chancellor's Office as a model for other community colleges throughout the State of California.

In 1998 the Library called for bids for a new integrated library system, and a contract was awarded to Endeavor in 1999. Access to Britannica Online and to Proquest was added in 1999. With Proquest, patrons gained access to 2,400 periodicals and newspapers, with many articles in full text on-screen. Patrons were given the option of printing copies for ten cents a page, but they could avoid that cost by downloading articles onto their own disks, or by sending them via e-mail to themselves. A library website ( was launched in November 1999, with Leslie Diaz as Webmaster. On-line access to Facts on File and to SIRS Knowledge Source was also added in 1999.