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Bio-Filtration of Household Graywater:
An Ecological Approach

By: Ibrahim Hajjali, Steven Cardenas, Thai Voung, Jim Liu, William Liang, Marisa Robles, Alieenthea Lam, John Krayer, Rushil Shah, and Alex Del Valle

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PCC Constructed Wetland


In a world where life thrives on water, it is important to have methods that will secure the quality of water and provide the nourishment that the environment requires. In this study we observed the effects of pollution on a constructed wetland to determine the wetlands ability to reduce pollution levels. Through chemical tests and biological surveys we were able to determine our wetlands efficiency in pollution reduction. Through chemical testing we found pollution reduction levels of up to twenty percent for phosphate, six percent for nitrate, one hundred percent for iron and ninety-two percent for copper. From the biological surveys taken the bacterial counts and average diversity showed a substantial increase after the introduction of pollutant. The protist population initially showed a substantial drop in numbers followed by a notable increase. Our research has proven that the constructed wetland has the ability for self-purification.